After the First Week of the Surface Temperature Field Campaign

Hi GLOBE surface temperature enthusiasts. The first week of the GLOBE Surface Temperature campaign (plus a couple days) is over. I took at look through all of the data that has been submitted so far. The field campaign looks to be a great success again. I greatly appreciate all of your hard work. 17 schools have entered data so far from 4 countries.

The number of observations for a school is in parenthesis.

Sekundarschule Uzwil, Switzerland (2) – Thanks Markus

Shazar Intermediate School, Israel (12)

Al-Fath Secondary School at Abha, Saudi Arabia (2)

Princeton Middle School, West Virginia, USA

Pleasant Valley Elementary, Iowa, USA (4)

Dr. Bessie Rhodes School of Global Studies, Illinois, USA (15) – 5 different sites

Otsego High School, Ohio, USA (3)

Main Street Intermediate School, Norwalk, Ohio, USA (20) – Thanks Marcy

Mohican School in the Out-of-doors, Ashland, Ohio, USA (8) – Thanks Susan and Steve

Chartiers-Housgon Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania, USA (8)– Thanks Gary

Roswell-Kent Middle School, Akron, Ohio, USA (71) 6 different sites – Thanks Steve

Lakewood Catholic Academy, Cleveland, Ohio, USA (16) – Thanks Eilene

University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA (10) – This is me and my students

Navarre Elementary School, Toledo, Ohio, USA (36) – 6 different site observed.

Monroe High School, Monroe, Michigan, USA (46) and (24) at Bowles Harbor (a nearby science center – Thanks Russell

Huntington High School, Huntington, West Virginia, USA (14) – Thanks Rick

Mahopac High School, New York, USA

Some errors that I have seen. Some students have rounded off their observations to whole numbers. Please include the first decimal in your reporting. Be careful to use Celsius instead of Fahrenheit. I noticed that some schools have entered their surface temperature data in Fahrenheit. Also, make sure that you are entering the time in Universal Time and not your local time.

If you are new to GLOBE, please do not stress over entering the data incorrectly. Even the most seasoned GLOBE teachers have made mistakes already during the Surface Temperature field campaign.

**Marcy Burns and the kids at Main Street Intermediate School may take the record for the most consecutive years in participating in the GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign – 9 years. **

Here are some of the data plotted through the GLOBE visualization system. You can see on Dec. 2, 2014 that the temperature in Israel is much warmer than the upper Midwest of the US.
schools

12-2

The weather in the United States has become warm compared to November. The cold air has stayed up in Canada this December. Most schools haven’t had to measure snow during this GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign. Here is the snow cover from NOAA. There is more snow cover than average in Asia according to Rutgers Snow Lab.

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cursnow_usa

Did you know that there is a 3-year drought going on in California? It is quite a bad drought at that. The Palmer Drought Severity Index gives an indication of how bad droughts are. You can see that most of California is in a severe drought. You can see in the radar image and infrared satellite image below. There are a lot of clouds and precipitation shown on the radar. You will see on the 500 mb map that the flow has become zonal, goes from west to east across the country. This type of flow will help storms come into the western US from the ocean and for storms to move across the US quickly. That is one of the reasons that there is snow moving across the Great Lakes and into the Northeast. This rain in California is not enough to stop the drought but it could help it some. You will see that there will be landslides in California as the ground gets more saturated. How might a drought affect the surface temperature?
draught

radar

The rain is associated with a storm system in the Pacific Ocean that is moving in. You can see on the surface map that the system is a low pressure system along a cold front. The rain is quite widespread.

Announcing the GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign

GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign
December 1 to December 31, 2014
The GLOBE Program will host the annual surface temperature field campaign from December 1 to December 31, 2014. This is a great opportunity to work as a community with schools around the world on a common research project.
I will be blogging during the field campaign about the weather and also the student data. You won’t want to miss it. The blog is located at: http://satellitesk12.org. There is information about last year’s field campaign on the blog site as well.

http://satellitesk12.org/?p=1550

For resources, go to the GLOBE website.
The GLOBE teacher’s guide has the how’s and what’s about the surface temperature protocol.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/protocols

The field guide also provides important information about performing the protocol.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/overview/field-guides

The data sheets can be found off of this page.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/overview/data-sheets

Some teachers find it hard to get an infrared thermometer (IRT) to do the protocol. In the past, we have used Fluke 63. We have used Fluke 561 most recently. If you can’t find one of those, you may use a lower cost instrument. When you set up your surface temperature site, please specify the type of IRT you are using. Also, you may be able to borrow one from a heating and cooling specialist or an auto mechanic. They use them for their jobs.
Questions? Contact Kevin Czajkowski, 419-530-4274, kevin.czajkowski@utoledo.edu

3rd week of GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign

Week 3: Surface Temperature field campaign

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Roswell-Kent Middle School, Ohio – Hi Steve and GLOBE class
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Bloomfield Junior/Senior High, Ohio
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen
Westchester Area Schools, New York – Hi Trenton
Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania – Hi Mr. Pop
Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago – Hi Ali
John Marshall High School, West Virginia – Hi Kim
Gimnazjum No 7 Jana III Sobieskiego in Rzeszów, Poland
Taaksi Basic School, Estonia
Crestwood High School, Michigan
Hills Home School, Washington, DC
Severn School, Maryland
The 2nd Secondary Girls School at Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Kilingi-Nomme Gymnasium, Estonia
Sekundarschule Uzwil, Switzerland – Hi Markus

If you haven’t been able to enter data so far, please so as soon as possible. I take a look at the data to see if there is any problem with it. If you are still having trouble getting the data in, please contact the help desk, help@globe.gov or me.

Problem with Cason 380 infrared thermometers
Megan Rodgers found a problems with the Cason 380 infrared thermometers. When it was about -8 Celsius outside and she left the instruments outside, the instruments read “too cold to read”. This is the first instruments I have had this happen.

I was lucky this year and my university classes ended a week earlier than usual. I got my grades done December 17th and then I visited Mr. Sinclair’s class at Ida Middle School on December 18th.

This image shows the school on the left from Google Earth from high resolution satellite imagery and on the right is the school with a Landsat image overlaid on top of the Google Earth image. The orange and red colors depict warmer temperatures and the blue tones depict cooler temperatures. You can see that the school and its surrounding parking lots are warmer than the temperature of the grassy areas and fields around the school.
ida2

Second week of Surface Temperature field campaign
The GLOBE Surface Temperature Temperature field campaign has continued to grow this past week. And, to add to the fun, snow has been falling in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere. GLOBE scientist, George Mitri, from Lebanon, said that there was snow for three days there. That was fairly unusual. I’ll get into why this has happened.

Many of you have had snow on the ground and that has affected the surface temperature. We had about 30 mm (a little over an inch) of snow in Toledo, Ohio this past week. The temperature of the grass with the snow on it was -4.4 C while the concrete without snow was -0.4 C.

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Bloomfield Junior/Senior High, Ohio
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen
Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania – Hi Mr. Pop
Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago – Hi Ali
John Marshall High School, West Virginia – Hi Kim
Gimnazjum No 7 Jana III Sobieskiego in Rzeszów, Poland
Taaksi Basic School, Estonia
Crestwood High School, Michigan

Here are MODIS images provided through NASA’s WorldView distribution website. There are lines that run from southwest to northeast in the image. Those are where the images are stitched together because the satellite images a swath of about 2300 km wide. Can you see where the snow is in the images? Today a snow storm is bringing snow to the Toledo area. Please see the image below.

MODIS image of the United States showing snow and clouds
modis

MODIS image of Europe showing clouds and snow
europe

Picture of my car covered by snow
carsnow

In this image, the path of the jet stream is shown on the snow cover map. You can see that there is a big dip in the jet stream so that cold air goes all the way down to New Mexico and Texas and then the jet stream caused the snow storm to track to the northeast. The same type of trough in the jet stream brought a snowstorm to the Middle East.
Snow cover with the jet stream in red.
storm

First week of Surface Temperature field campaign
It was a great first week of observation taking. I managed to take observations three times. The temperature dramatically went down between Monday and Friday.

I noticed that some of the observations have errors. One of the biggest issues is students not using the correct universal time. Remember that universal time is the time at 0 degrees longitude. It is also on a 24 hour clock.

Keep up the good work taking observations. If you post them to the GLOBE website, I can take a look at them. Please try to do it every day.

Snow cover in the United States has changed rapidly. The pictures below show the snow cover and depth on December 3, 2013 and then again on December 6, 2013. The weather has been quite active in the Northern Hemisphere, both the United States and in Europe. There was a little more snow in Eastern Europe as well.
NHsnow2
snow
GLOBEobs

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen

Some of the data is not showing up yet. Only the surface temperature observations near noon are showing up. The other ones just disappeared. There must have been a server problem.

GLOBE Students Present Their Research, Part II: The 2nd Annual Student Research Exhibition

This is reposted from the GLOBE blog.

Last week we highlighted the 2013 GLOBE Virtual Student Conference, a showcase of student research being performed using GLOBE protocols. This week, the focus is on the 2nd Annual Student Research Exhibition, an event that features GLOBE Country Coordinator or U.S. Partner sponsored student research projects.

Last year, the 1st Annual Student Research Exhibition (formerly the Student Science Symposium) was held in St. Paul, Minnesota in conjunction with the 16th Annual GLOBE Partner Meeting. After the great success of the event, the decision was made to make it an annual event in an attempt to involve GLOBE Students in the GLOBE Partner Meetings. In May of 2013, the call for nominations for student research projects to participate in this event was sent to all GLOBE Country Coordinators and U.S. Partners in the hopes that this event would include the top research from each area.

The 2nd Annual Student Research Exhibition event was held on Monday, 12 August, 2013 in conjunction with the 17th Annual GLOBE Partner meeting in Hyattsville, Maryland, USA. Ten countries participated in the one night event, which included over 70 students from all grade levels. Those ten countries, Argentina, Croatia, Madagascar, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, United States, and Uruguay , represented all GLOBE regions, and schools presented their research either in-person, through a poster presentation, or virtually, via either a video or PowerPoint presentation. Additionally, each of the 33 research projects performed protocols in at least one of the 5 GLOBE investigation areas.
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A student from Saudi Arabia presents her research during the 2nd Annual Student Research Exhibiton

In addition to the breadth of research topics and protocols used, students approached their research differently. One student worked on her own to understand sea surface temperature. There was a group of students who explored how they could harness fresh water for use at their school. Another project was collaborative between three countries, Argentina, Peru, and Uruguay, and it explored how ENSO and human activities are affecting their land cover. While these are just a sampling of the projects, each research team presented outstanding research to the greater GLOBE community.

All student projects were judged on pre-determined criteria by members of the GLOBE International Scientist Network. The projects were judged on a maximum of 100 points in the areas of creative ability, use of GLOBE data, scientific expression, thoroughness, knowledge achieved and clarity.

With these criteria in mind, the following projects were the winners of the 2nd Annual Student Research Exhibition.

In third place, representing the country of Croatia and the GLOBE Europe and Eurasia Region was the project entitled Water quality and the revitalization potential of Mrtvi Kanal Channel, studied by students at Medicinska skola u Rijeci.
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Students from Medicinska skola u Rijeci stand with their teacher in front of their poster

In second place, representing the country of Thailand and the GLOBE Asia and Pacific Region was the project entitled Measured concentration of nitrate in water from the bulb of Wetland plan Nepnthes in Bung Khong Long, Thailand, studied by students at Bung Khong Long Wittayakom School.
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Students from Bung Khong Long Wittayakom school accept their second place award with their teacher

And in first place, representing the country of the United States and the GLOBE North America Region was the project entitled Correlations between vernal pool phenology and a breeding population of Bufo americanus in Dearborn Heights, Michigan, studied by students at Crestwood High School. You can read a summary of this winning project here.
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Students from Crestwood High School show off their award with GLOBE Program Office Scientist Jessica Mackaro

The GLOBE Program would like to extend a big thank you to all of the scientists, teachers and students who were involved in this fantastic event.

If you’ve been performing research, you don’t need to wait for the Virtual Student Conference or the Student Research Exhibition to share your research with the GLOBE Community. You can submit projects year round through the “Tell Us About It” link on your school’s page. Additionally, if you’re a scientist who would like to be involved in The GLOBE Program, be sure to visit the GLOBE International Scientist Network page to find out more information.

GLOBE Road Trip

I am on a road trip to visit GLOBE Partners, trainers, teachers and students to talk with them about the projects they do and share the type of projects my students do.

I have been working with teachers and students to develop scientific projects where students take observations through the GLOBE Program, share them on the internet and research real-world scientific problems. I have found that when the students are doing real science, they are more interested in learning science. I will be traveling in the mountain states from June 12 to July 7. My goal is to meet and visit teachers who may be interested in learning more about projects that students can do. I travelled with my two sons, Robby (14) and Timmy (10).

Day 4 through 8:
We made it to Boulder, Colorado where I’m helping with a train-the-trainer workshop to train GLOBE trainers. The workshop is June 17-19. I led atmosphere training for the trainers on June 17. I had the participants research the protocols for atmosphere: air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature, surface temperature, clouds and condensation trails and relative humidity. The participants then came up with a research question that they could answer in about an hour of taking observations and reported out to the group. I related having students doing scientific research to kids playing soccer. Even though kids are not professional soccer players, they always get to play the game (and get a snack afterwards). Just like soccer, teachers should have students doing scientific investigation in the classroom so that they can learn science. Sometimes, teachers feel that you have to be a professional scientist to do science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) really follows the idea that students will learn science best by doing science. They all can play the game. It is always nice to have a snack afterwards as well.

There are a lot of nice people being trained to be trainers for GLOBE. It is really exciting to see.

training

Day 3:
We then took the long drive to visit with Paul Adams. Paul is a professor in science education at Fort Hays State University. His wife, four children and the wife of his oldest son hosted a wonderful dinner for us. Hays is very far from anywhere.
paul

We stopped about 60 miles east of Hays to take a bike ride amongst the wind turbines of a wind farm. Can you tell that it was very windy?
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Day 2:
We drove to Cedar Falls, Iowa to visit with Marcy Seavey, 3 teachers and 5 students she organized to meet with us. Marcey is the Project Director of the Iowa Academy of Sciences. On the way, we stopped at Castle Rock State Park in Illinois and took a hike and then we went to Antique Archaeology that is featured on the American Pickers TV show.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Our visit with Marcy, the teachers and students was a great sharing opportunity. A new Orange Elementary School was built down the road and the kids took the latitude and longitude using the GPS protocol. The kids also took surface temperature readings around the Arboretum.

marcy
Then, one of the teachers and her students shared with us a project that they did for the International Space Station (ISS). It was interesting because her 7th grade students used the term ISS like everyone should know what it is.

Timmy showed everyone the thermal camera. He showed them how the camera can image a hand through a black garbage bag but cannot image the hand through clear plexiglass.

Marcy provided pizza and drinks. It was a really nice time.

Day 1:
We drove from our home in Temperance, MI to Naperville, IL to meet with Greg Lapotka. Greg volunteers at the Morton Arboretum and has students come to take GLOBE observations. It sounds like a great opportunity for the kids. It normally costs $10-$14 to get in but Greg has worked to make it so it is free for the families taking the observations. They have a GLOBE station set up for air temperature and precipitation. They do green up and green down with the nice trees. They also take surface temperature observations for my surface temperature field campaign each year.

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We were late getting to the arboretum because it was rush hour. I took a wrong turn that cost us 30 minutes of time. When we got to the arboretum though, it was raining very hard. Several roads were closed in the arboretum so our visit was limited. Timmy was interested in the pervious parking lot that let the rain water in. We got a first hand look at it. Greg is a big Chicago Blackhawks fan and he is very excited that his team is in the Stanley Cup playoffs.

More to come. Dr. C

Results from the AmericaView/GLOBE Earth Observation Day

On April 10 and 22, 2013, students participated in the first spring Earth Observation Day sponsored by GLOBE and the AmericaView Remote Sensing Consortium.

Students took observations near their school of a grassy area and an asphalt surface.

The Earth has warmed over the last 50 years and continues to warm. In addition, over the same time period, urban areas have expanded leading to increased warming of cities exasperating summer heat waves. Satellites can observe the temperature of cities and their surrounding areas. In situ observations are needed to validate the satellite temperatures. Student observations of surface temperature can contribute to the validation of the surface temperature.

Dr. Kevin Czajkowski from the University of Toledo hosted the first spring AmericaView/GLOBE Surface Temperature field day on April 10 and 22, 2013, Earth Observation Day. On this two day event, we supported students to take surface temperature. Students entered data on the GLOBE website or they sent the data to AmericaView Director Rick Landenberger, Rick.Landenberger@mail.wvu.edu.

This year, some of the GLOBE Scientists developed videos explaining how to take surface temperature observations. Here is a video of Rick Landenberger from West Virginia University taking his surface temperature observations.

Nektaria Adaktilou, a GLOBE Scientist from the University of Athens, described how to take surface temperature observations in both English and Greek.

And, here is her instructions in Greek.

 Looking at the data

The schools that took observations during the surface temperature observation days were:

Ida Elementary School, Michigan USA

Main Street School, Ohio, USA

California University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA

West Virginia University, VW, USA

3rd Lyceum of Algaleo, Athens, Greece

Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago

Killingi-Nomme Gymnasium, Estonia

Here are students at Ida Elementary School taking surface temperature observations.

Ida Ts 4-23-13

Here are students at Brazil High School in Trinidad and Tobago discussing the clouds when taking their surface temperature observations.

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P1130664

 

AmericaView is a consortium of 36 states working together to promote the use of remote sensing and other geospatial technologies.

http://www.americaview.org/

AmericaView and GLOBE have a partnership that goes back at least 10 years. GLOBE brings the field observations and AmericaView brings in the remote sensing/geospatial technologies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wyoming Student wins 3rd Place in Science Fair

From the WyomingView Blog

http://wyomingview.blogspot.com/

Sarah’s urban heat island study wins third place in the 2013 Wyoming State Science Fair

 Sarah Arulsamy, an 8th grader in Laramie Junior School, studied how different natural and man-made (artificial) surfaces in Laramie absorbed radiation at different times of the day.

Temperature data collected by her at 5 different locations on 3 different days, revealed that concrete pavements and asphalt roads absorbed relatively more heat in the morning (between 8 am and 1 pm) and released relatively less heat in the afternoon and evening (between 1 pm and 8 pm) in comparison to natural surfaces (grass lawns and bare ground). As a result asphalt roads and concrete pavements continued to be warmer (25°C or 77°F) at 8 pm in comparison to bare ground and lawns (17°C or 63°F). This excess heat stored by artificial surfaces is released during the night time due to the fact that the temperature differences between all surfaces were less at 8 am next day. Similar data collected in fall and winter seasons did not show such drastic variations in the temperatures of different features.

Sarah presented her research findings in the 2013 Wyoming State Science Fair in Laramie on 3/5/2013 and won the third place in the Junior Environmental Sciences category.

During the course of this work she noted that the average summer temperature at 1pm of tire mulch, an artificial surface in a children’s park, was 58°C (136°F). Based on this finding she recommended that the city has to post warning signs to alert parents about potential dangers to unsuspecting children. Her research was supported by WyomingView. She plans to continue this research in the summer of 2013 by including additional sites and more frequent measurements.

Lake Erie Getting Ice Covered

The cold weather this last month has led to Lake Erie developing ice cover. This past week, the temperature has been averaging about 20 F (-6 C). Even with temperatures in the 50s and 60s F (10 C to 15 C), ice has formed. See the Figure 1 below.

As you can see in the picture, the ice on Lake Erie is broken up into things that look like islands. The wind blows the ice around and breaks it up. There is a straight line through Lake St. Clair that extends down into Lake Erie. What do you think caused this straight line? Usually, on Earth, straight lines are produced by humans.

Figure 1: MODIS satellites image of Lake Erie February 6, 2013.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: MODIS satellite image of Lake Erie from January 24, 2013.

As you can see, on January 24, 2013, just two weeks ago, the Western basin of Lake Erie was ice covered and  there was some ice on the northern side of the lake. You can see that areas of Southern Ontario north of Lake Erie did not have snow on the ground on January 24, 2013 and then on February 6, 2013, there is snow.

As part of GLOBE’s Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Program (ESSP), I have taken pictures of the Ottawa River that flows through the University of Toledo and then empties into Lake Erie. http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/spotlights/2012/globe-workshop I took pictures from the shore across the river and then from the bridge upstream and downstream.

Figure 3: GLOBE Seasons and Biomes instructions for taking pictures of ice cover.

You can see in the pictures that the river has ice along the banks. Why is the river not frozen while the lake is? Last week, the river was completely ice covered. But, when temperatures went way up and it rained, the ice melted and washed away.

Figure 4: Picture of the Ottawa River from a) across, b) upstream, and c) downstream

a) across

 

b) Upstream

 

c) downstream

 

 

Be sure to be safe around ice.

Dr. C

GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign Final Report

The GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign was a success once again this year. Thank you to all of the students and teachers who make this field campaign possible. And, thank you to GLOBE for supporting this type of scientific investigation. A total of 17 schools have entered data so far as of January 17, 2013 and I know that several others took observations and are working on getting their observations in. This is a smaller number of participants than the last several years when between 40 and 60 schools participated. I suspect that the change over to the new GLOBE website may have caused extra confusion and challenges. The amount of errors in the reported data seemed low which shows the diligence of the students and teachers in taking these observations.

Here are the schools that have posted observations so far.

Crestwood High School, Daerborn Heights, Michigan

Taaksi Basic School, Estonia, Thanks for participating again.

Kilingi-Nomme Gymnasium, Estonia, Thanks for participating again.

Alexander von Humbolt Gymnasium, Konstanz, Germany

The University of Toledo, This is me and my children.

Westchester Area School, Hi Trenton, it is good to see your data.

Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Good to see you Mr. Pop.

Burlington County Institute Of Technology, New Jersey

West Union High School, Ohio

Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Brown.

Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Great that you got on Mrs. McGuire

Roswell-Kent Middle School, Ohio – Hi Mr. Frantz.

Mohican School in the Out of Doors, Ohio – Hi Susan and Steve

Brazil School, Trinidad and Tobago

Main Street School, Norwalk, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Burns.

The Morton Arboretum Youth Education Department, Illinois

John Marshall High School, Glen Dale, West Virginia – Hi Mrs. Clark. Thank you for having your students participate.

Here is a view of the Eastern United States from the GLOBE visualization page showing the observations on December 13, 2012. The surface temperature was coldest near Cleveland in eastern Ohio and warmest in southern West Virginia.

The school that was most diligent was Lakewood Catholic Academy near Cleveland, Ohio. The students and teacher took surface temperature observations on every day in December including Christmas and New Years Eve. That is dedication. Please look at the time series plot below that I made from the GLOBE visualization page.

There are many things that can be done with the observations. Now that the field observations are over, students can use the observations to develop inquiry-based research projects. I want to outline some examples.

In the past, students have looked at the difference in surface temperature under different cloud conditions, between schools at different elevations and latitude, and between schools in North America vs. Europe. How does land cover affect surface temperature? How does the number of condensation trails affect surface temperature? How does surface temperature change from day to day and season to season.

Dr. C

Snowstorm across US: 2012 GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign

Storm Coming Across US

If you live in the United States, you probably have heard of the snow storm crossing the country right now. There will be mountain snow in the Rockie Mountains, a potential for a blizzard from Nebraska to Wisconsin and then some snow to the Great Lakes states. The National Weather Service (NWS) definition of a blizzard is:

“A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer:

  • Sustained wind or frequent gusts to 35 miles an hour or greater; and
  • Considerable falling and/or blowing snow (i.e., reducing visibility frequently to less than ¼ mile)”

Some of the Surface Temperature Field Campaign participating schools will be getting snow this Friday especially the lake effect regions. The jet stream causes the storm to take this type of track. I put the jet stream and the forecast storm track in the figure below. There are two ingredients that help storms (called mid-latitude cyclones) to form east of the Rocky Mountains. The first is the boundary between hot and cold air. For this storm, there is warm weather in Texas and cold weather coming down out of Canada. The second is that when the jet stream takes air over the Rocky Mountains, the air column gets bigger on the east side of the Rockies. When the air expands, it leads to low pressure. Here is a tutorial on mid-latitude cyclones. http://www.atmos.illinois.edu/~snodgrss/Midlatitude_cyclone.html

 

Week 2 Update

The second week of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign has come to a close. The number of schools participating is slowly increasing. I have also worked with a number of teachers this past week and with the GLOBE Help Desk, to get their students access to post data. The GLOBE Help Desk has done a wonderful job of responding to individual requests. I am hopeful that even more teachers and students join the field campaign once all of the teacher training data has been migrated into the new system. That is going on this week. I can’t imagine trying to migrate the data for 20,000 teachers and trainers from one system to another. One of the big challenges is that the teachers and trainers are trained in different protocols. Not everyone is trained in all protocols.

 

Here are the schools that have posted observations so far. 13 schools total.

Crestwood High School, Michigan

Taaksi Basic School, Estonia, Thanks for participating again.

The University of Toledo, This is me and my children.

Westchester Area School, Hi Trenton, it is good to see your data.

Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Good to see you Mr. Pop.

Burlington County Institute Of Technology, New Jersey

West Union High School, Ohio

Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Brown.

Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Great that you got on Mrs. McGuire

Roswell-Kent Middle School, Ohio – Hi Mr. Frantz.

Mohican School in the Out of Doors, Ohio – Hi Susan and Steve

Brazil School, Brazil

Main Street School, Norwalk, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Burns.

The Morton Arboretum Youth Education Department, Illinois

Here are the schools that posted data so far in the United States on Dec. 11, 2012.

 

Please be careful when entering data that the universal time is correct. Also, take a look at the visualization on the GLOBE website to make sure that the location (latitude and longitude) of your sites are correct. I have seen at least one case where I think the location is incorrect.

If you or your students have taken data and you haven’t entered it yet, please do so soon. I check over the data for any errors and let the teachers know. Okay, I’m guilty. I haven’t entered my data yet either. Below is a picture of Robby and Timmy, my kids, helping me take surface temperature observations.

Doing a Project

One thing I would like you to consider is having the students do a project with the data. There are lots of projects built into the surface temperature field campaign. Below, I have a discussion about the difference in temperature between the United States and Europe. That is a great project. The question is “Why are the temperatures different between the two continents even though the observations were taken at about the same latitude? When I was in Europe this past summer, a heat wave was going on. I asked the question, How do different paving materials affect the energy budget. I share this study early next week. I have to finish writing it up. You can look at my GLOBE trip to Europe here: http://www.globe.gov/web/kevin.czajkowski/blog?p_p_id=33&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-1&p_p_col_count=1

http://satellitesk12.org/?m=201208

 

Implications of the Observations

Looking at the observations, it is very apparent that Europe has been colder than the United States even though at this time of year, that is not normally the case. In the image below, you will notice that the temperature at Uzwil School in Switzerland is colder than any of the observations in the United States. When I visited Markus Eugster this past summer in Uzwil, I was surprised when he described the weather and climate there. He said that they get snow but that it usually does not last long. His school is to the northeast of the Alps. In the Alps, the snow falls in the fall and stays throughout the winter. But in Uzwil, it does not. These observations match what I have been seeing. In Europe and Asia, snow cover is pretty extensive. On the other hand, in the United States, the snow has been confined to the northern most states. On the day shown, Dec. 4, 2012, the surface temperature in Uzwil was 1.6 C while in the eastern United States, the schools all reported about 10 C. By Dec. 6, 2012, surface temperatures had fallen in all locations. Uzwil fell to -4.3 C while the schools in the United States reported temperatures between 0.9 and 7.2 C. The surface temperature at Brazil High School in Trinidad and Tobago on Dec. 4, 2012 was much higher than any of the others, 36.8 C.

It will be interesting to see if this pattern of cold in Europe and warm in the US persists throughout the winter. That was the pattern last winter where in the eastern United States it felt like there was no winter at all. Here is the figure of snowfall in the United States and in Europe. You can see though that since Dec. 6 there has been a lot of snowfall in the United States especially in the northern states and, most recently, in the western states. But, will it snow at my house? That is what I want to know. Will it get cold enough to make the ice rink in the back yard so we can skate?

 

Ask your students, Why is snow cover so important for the Earth? How does it affect the surface and air temperature during the day and night? How does it impact the energy budget? I get pretty geeked when there is now.

Living in southeast Michigan, the weather has been pretty warm iwht high temperatures in the 40s that last couple of days. Even with that, ice is forming on the cover of our swimming pool. The average temperature for the days has been below freezing which is forming the ice. Even though the temperature during the day goes above freezing, it is that warm for only a short period of time. The night is very long.

Keep up the great work!

Dr. C

 

 

Week 1 Update

The GLOBE surface temperature field campaign started this week with some record warm temperatures in the United States. Students in much of the United States enjoyed short sleeve weather for several days.

Schools have started to post observations on the GLOBE website. The GLOBE website has been changed dramatically over the last year. The GLOBE Program Office will be adding all teachers in a bulk transfer from the old database in the near future. Many teachers have also signed up on the GLOBE webpage http://www.globe.gov and the help desk has set them up so they can enter data. The help desk has been doing a great job managing everyone.

Here are the schools that have posted observations so far.

Burlington County Institute Of Technology, New Jersey

West Union High School, Ohio

Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Brown.

Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Great that you got on Mrs. McGuire

Roswell-Keny Middle School, Ohio – Hi Mr. Frantz.

Brazil School, Brazil

Main Street School, Norwalk, Ohio – Hi Mrs. Burns.

The Morton Arboretum Youth Education Department, Illinois

This is a map from the GLOBE website that shows the schools that entered surface temperature data so far on Dec. 3, 2012. Please try to have your students get your data online as soon as possible so we can trouble shoot any problems. Let me know if you run into any problems. kevin.czajkowski@utoledo.edu

As many of you know, I love snow. I love to ski and ice skate and sled. So far this winter has been a dud. There hasn’t been a lot of snow. Last winter was so warm, there was very little snow as well. As you can see in the attached figure, there is very little snow today in the lower 48 of the United States. That is the part of the United States that does not include Hawaii and Alaska. A storm recently laid down snow in Europe. The weather pattern is going to change in North America and bring the cold air from Alaska and northern Canada into the lower 48.

Seasons and Biomes Frost Tube

I have taken frost tube observations for the Seasons and Biomes GLOBE project for the past 3 years http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/spotlights/2012/globe-workshop. I tried to take an observation this morning only to find that the tube had broken and all of the water drained out. I wonder if the plastic had gotten brittle and when it froze it broken when the ice expanded. I’ll have to fix it this weekend before consistently cold temperatures arrive next week.

I hope to see your data soon.

Dr. C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GLOBE STAR of Finland Training

GLOBE recently made a STAR out of my trip to Finland to work with GLOBE teachers and trainers there. http://www.globe.gov/news/globe-stars/starsdetail/globe/2012-finland-training

It was a great experience. If you ever have a chance to go to Finland, I think you will enjoy it.

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