After the First Week of the Surface Temperature Field Campaign

Hi GLOBE surface temperature enthusiasts. The first week of the GLOBE Surface Temperature campaign (plus a couple days) is over. I took at look through all of the data that has been submitted so far. The field campaign looks to be a great success again. I greatly appreciate all of your hard work. 17 schools have entered data so far from 4 countries.

The number of observations for a school is in parenthesis.

Sekundarschule Uzwil, Switzerland (2) – Thanks Markus

Shazar Intermediate School, Israel (12)

Al-Fath Secondary School at Abha, Saudi Arabia (2)

Princeton Middle School, West Virginia, USA

Pleasant Valley Elementary, Iowa, USA (4)

Dr. Bessie Rhodes School of Global Studies, Illinois, USA (15) – 5 different sites

Otsego High School, Ohio, USA (3)

Main Street Intermediate School, Norwalk, Ohio, USA (20) – Thanks Marcy

Mohican School in the Out-of-doors, Ashland, Ohio, USA (8) – Thanks Susan and Steve

Chartiers-Housgon Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania, USA (8)– Thanks Gary

Roswell-Kent Middle School, Akron, Ohio, USA (71) 6 different sites – Thanks Steve

Lakewood Catholic Academy, Cleveland, Ohio, USA (16) – Thanks Eilene

University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA (10) – This is me and my students

Navarre Elementary School, Toledo, Ohio, USA (36) – 6 different site observed.

Monroe High School, Monroe, Michigan, USA (46) and (24) at Bowles Harbor (a nearby science center – Thanks Russell

Huntington High School, Huntington, West Virginia, USA (14) – Thanks Rick

Mahopac High School, New York, USA

Some errors that I have seen. Some students have rounded off their observations to whole numbers. Please include the first decimal in your reporting. Be careful to use Celsius instead of Fahrenheit. I noticed that some schools have entered their surface temperature data in Fahrenheit. Also, make sure that you are entering the time in Universal Time and not your local time.

If you are new to GLOBE, please do not stress over entering the data incorrectly. Even the most seasoned GLOBE teachers have made mistakes already during the Surface Temperature field campaign.

**Marcy Burns and the kids at Main Street Intermediate School may take the record for the most consecutive years in participating in the GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign – 9 years. **

Here are some of the data plotted through the GLOBE visualization system. You can see on Dec. 2, 2014 that the temperature in Israel is much warmer than the upper Midwest of the US.
schools

12-2

The weather in the United States has become warm compared to November. The cold air has stayed up in Canada this December. Most schools haven’t had to measure snow during this GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign. Here is the snow cover from NOAA. There is more snow cover than average in Asia according to Rutgers Snow Lab.

cursnow_asiaeurope

cursnow_usa

Did you know that there is a 3-year drought going on in California? It is quite a bad drought at that. The Palmer Drought Severity Index gives an indication of how bad droughts are. You can see that most of California is in a severe drought. You can see in the radar image and infrared satellite image below. There are a lot of clouds and precipitation shown on the radar. You will see on the 500 mb map that the flow has become zonal, goes from west to east across the country. This type of flow will help storms come into the western US from the ocean and for storms to move across the US quickly. That is one of the reasons that there is snow moving across the Great Lakes and into the Northeast. This rain in California is not enough to stop the drought but it could help it some. You will see that there will be landslides in California as the ground gets more saturated. How might a drought affect the surface temperature?
draught

radar

The rain is associated with a storm system in the Pacific Ocean that is moving in. You can see on the surface map that the system is a low pressure system along a cold front. The rain is quite widespread.

Record-breaking Cold in Eastern United States

November 18, 2014 by  
Filed under Dr. C's Blog

As many of you have seen, record breaking cold has come down from Canada into the eastern United States. This is cold is going to produce some amazing amounts of lake effect snow to the east of the Great Lakes. It is lake effect snow and storms like this that got me interested in Meteorology when I was a kid. I remember one storm; I had gotten home from school and it started to snow. It started to snow straight down without any wind. It snow so hard that I could only see about 5 feet. The snow was accumulating so fast that I was out in the road. I would scrape the snow away from the road and in seconds it would fill in again. I heard on the Weather Channel today that this is the coldest November cold outbreak since 1976. The 1976-18977 winter was the one that got me interested in weather. There were so many snow days that I studied the weather to see if I could have more days off of school.

Why have it been so cold?

The first thing is that there is snow cover in Siberia and much of Canada. With the early snow in Siberia, cold air has formed there. Any cold air that comes from Siberia then does not warm because the ground between there and the eastern US is all covered with snow. Snow insulates the ground keep the warmth from the ground from warming the air above it. Also, the snow reflects sunlight so that the ground does not warm up. You can see on the following graphic that the jet stream is directing the air from Siberia, through the Arctic to the United States.
asia2

us

You can see on the figure below that the upper atmosphere is directing the weather from Siberia, over the Arctic to the US. This figure shows the surface map with isobars as black lines and the 500 mb map as the colors which is the wind at about 5 km above the surface. You can see that the high pressure links all the way back to Siberia. These high pressure systems are Arctic (cold) in nature.

500

Here is a map of the lows last night. You can see that Toledo got down to 10 F. Many states to our west were in the single digits or teens. And, as you know, it is windy as well so the wind chill is quite low.
temp_lo

Lake Effect Snow
There is a significant lake effect snow event going on. The winds are going over the Great Lakes and producing lake effect snow to the east of the lakes. Areas south of Buffalo, NY may get over 6 feet of snow. You can see in the visible satellite and radar images how the lake effect is forming over the lakes and flowing eastward. Question: What is it about the lakes that lead to lake effect snow? Why is the lake effect snow so heavy in Buffalo versus Toledo?

radar

satellite

Announcing the GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign

GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign
December 1 to December 31, 2014
The GLOBE Program will host the annual surface temperature field campaign from December 1 to December 31, 2014. This is a great opportunity to work as a community with schools around the world on a common research project.
I will be blogging during the field campaign about the weather and also the student data. You won’t want to miss it. The blog is located at: http://satellitesk12.org. There is information about last year’s field campaign on the blog site as well.

http://satellitesk12.org/?p=1550

For resources, go to the GLOBE website.
The GLOBE teacher’s guide has the how’s and what’s about the surface temperature protocol.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/protocols

The field guide also provides important information about performing the protocol.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/overview/field-guides

The data sheets can be found off of this page.
http://www.globe.gov/web/atmosphere-climate/overview/data-sheets

Some teachers find it hard to get an infrared thermometer (IRT) to do the protocol. In the past, we have used Fluke 63. We have used Fluke 561 most recently. If you can’t find one of those, you may use a lower cost instrument. When you set up your surface temperature site, please specify the type of IRT you are using. Also, you may be able to borrow one from a heating and cooling specialist or an auto mechanic. They use them for their jobs.
Questions? Contact Kevin Czajkowski, 419-530-4274, kevin.czajkowski@utoledo.edu

Climate Change Videos from Toledo Zoo Symposium

November 2, 2014 by  
Filed under Dr. C's Blog

Last Wednesday, October 29, 2014, I spoke at the Toledo Zoo Climate Change Symposium. In the audience were teachers as well as students. It was a great opportunity to speak to teachers about climate change. I looked at misconceptions that my students at the university level have about climate change. Then, I gave examples of what may have caused the students to have that misconception and then what the correct facts are about climate change.

The WGTE Knowledge Stream videos are up!

Check out our CC event webpage and I’ve added links to each of your specific videos, so you and the general public can revisit (or watch for the first time) the talks. Thanks again!

https://www.toledozoo.org/climate

GLOBE Training for Teacher LEADERS summer 2014

July 16, 2014 by  
Filed under Dr. C's Blog

We had a great GLOBE training for the Teacher LEADERS in the summer of 2014 at the University of Toledo Lake Erie Center (LEC). The LEADERS program is a NSF Math and Science Partnership MSP Program at the University of Toledo. The teachers broke into three groups. Each group had experts (trainers) who trained the others on the protocols that they learned. We focused on the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The teachers learned how to take air temperature, surface temperature and soil temperature observations. They also took soil samples for soil moisture observations for the SMAP satellite program (Soil Moisture Active-Passive). For hydrology, they tested the LEC ponds and Lake Erie itself that is right in front of the center. The lake was more turbid and had much more nitrates than the pond (1 mg/l to 4.5 mg/l). We found that the sand for the volleyball court was almost as warm as the blacktop parking lot.

2014-07-15 11.23.57

2014-07-15 11.29.51

2014-07-15 10.56.03

SATELLITES winner gets Superior at States

This comes from Steve Frantz, middle school teacher from Roswell-Kent Middle School in Akron.
Congratulations!

I am very pleased to announce Mai Lor, 7th grader from Roswell Kent
Middle School, earned a rating from the Ohio Academy of Science of
SUPERIOR today at State Science Day at THE Ohio State University.
Superior is the highest rating possible. Mai’s GLOBE Program science
fair project is titled:

Surface Temperature Between Short-Grass, Asphalt and Dirt: A Study on the Effects of Albedo

Mai continued her love of science by visiting the Center Of Science and Industry (COSI) while in Columbus.

Mai, on right, is pictured here with her trophy from the SATELLITES conference that was held on April 10th.
2014-04-10 19.40.38

SATELLITES Conference Results 2014

The SATELLITES Conference was April 10 at Penta Career Center in Perrysburg, Ohio. It was a great success. 82 students presented 47 projects ranging from fifth grade to graduate school. Fred Judsen from the Ohio Department of Transportation gave the keynote address talking about Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We also had several private sector people show off their UAVs. The kids loved them.

The goal of the conference was to have students present their research projects to other students. We also judged the studnets’ projects and offered trophies for the top three places for each grade level (K-6, 7-8 and 9-12).

People’s choice award – Sonny Meyer – Connie’s student – Here a bottle, there a bottle

K-6
1st – Sonny Meyer – Connie’s student – Here a bottle, there a bottle
2nd – Gavin Atkisson – Connie’s student – City Snow, Country Snow
3rd – Sophie Strickling – Methods to slow ice melt and preserve ice mass

7-8
I don’t know. 2 of the places went to Steve’s students
1st – Mai Lor – Roswell-Kent Middle School – Surface temperature over short grass
2nd- Deena Amrou, Katlynn Zaborowski, Deniz I – Anthony Wayne Junior High School – Global Warming
3rd- Leah Stanevich – Roswell-Kent Middle School – Rain, Tap, and Rain runoff water. A study for plant health

9-12
1st – Grant Adams – Penta Career Center – Using GIS to Help the DEA Find Illicit Drug Rings in Sequoia National Park
2nd – Zoltan Urge, Anna Rence, and Casey Pippert-Ladd from Put-in-Bay – The Island Cave Project
3rd – Bristle Dix, Emily Cadwell, Maygen Wray, Stryker High School – What is the Effect of Walking Surface Composition on Surface Temperature?

Here are some of the winners.
2014-04-10 19.38.27
Here are the judges doing their calculations.
2014-04-10 19.39.08

2014-04-10 19.40.20

2014-04-10 19.40.38

Here is a picture of one UAVs in action. The students were mesmerized.
IMG_2262

Final GLOBE Surface Temperature Field Campaign

January 11, 2014 by  
Filed under Dr. C's Blog, NASA

Now that the new year is upon us, we can take a look at the GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign from December 2013. I think it went very well. Tens of schools and thousands of students participated. Valuable data was collected that students can use to create research projects.

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School, Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Anthony Wayne Middle School, Ohio – Hi Sarah
Roswell-Kent Middle School, Ohio – Hi Steve and GLOBE class
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Bloomfield Junior/Senior High, Ohio
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen
Ida Middle School, Michigan – thanks Jay
Westchester Area Schools, New York – Hi Trenton
Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania – Hi Mr. Pop
Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago – Hi Ali
John Marshall High School, West Virginia – Hi Kim
Montague Elementary School, New Jersey – Hi Karen
Gimnazjum No 7 Jana III Sobieskiego in Rzeszów, Poland
Taaksi Basic School, Estonia
Crestwood High School, Michigan
Hills Home School, Washington, DC
Severn School, Maryland
The 2nd Secondary Girls School at Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Kilingi-Nomme Gymnasium, Estonia
Sekundarschule Uzwil, Switzerland – Hi Markus

There were 1117 observations in total. Again, Huntington High School in West Virginia had the most observations with 166. Way to go Rick.

You can see on this figure where some of the schools are that took observations. I chose to show a warm day, December 5, 2013 and contrast it with a colder day December 13, 2013. You can see how the cold air moved in. It helped that snow had fallen such that the temperature stayed cold. In the images, blue is cold while green and yellow colors are warmer.
globeobs


The highest temperature of 48.5 C from the field campaign was from Brazil High School in Trinidad and Tobago. They usually have the highest temperature. This year saw some of the coldest temperatures of any surface temperature field campaign that we have had. The David Wooster Middle Field Soccer field had a low temperature of -27.6 on December 13. Lexington Junior High had a temperature of 15.9 C on December 10, -25.9 C on December 11 at Stryker High School, 24.4 C at Archbold Middle School.

Visit to Ida Middle School, Michigan
On December 18, I visited Ida Middle School in Ida, Michigan. I worked with 5 classes of students to take surace temperature measurements. There was about 130 mm of snow on the ground and it was quite cold. The students were real troopers and went outside and took observations. The students took surface temperature observations from a grassy area and a gravel covered softball field. Both of these locations were completely covered with snow. They also took observations on concrete and asphalt sidewalks, some with snow on them and some without snow. The students also took observations on wood chips under the swings that I will not report here because it was not a cover type in GLOBE. Below are the location of the student observations on the grass, softball field, concrete and asphalt. They are designated by the green dots.

field

You can see in this graph how the temperatures of the various cover types differed. The x-axis shows the time in Universal Time. All of the observations show a warm up has the day progressed. The sites with snow, grass, softball field and asphalt with snow had the lowest temperatures while the asphalt and concrete without snow had the warmest temperatures.
graph1
The Cold Weather in the Great Lakes January 5-8, 2014
Although the cold weather in the Great Lakes in early January was not part of the surface temperature field campaign, I thought I would say a few things about it. At my house the low temperatures were as follows:
January 6 – -14 F (-26 C)
January 7 – -14 F (-26 C)
January 8 – -13 F (-25 C)
January 9 – -11 F (-24 C)
The high temperature on January 7 was -2 F. The temperature was below 0 F for 48 hours straight. The amazing thing about this cold weather was that the wind was blowing 30-40 mph at my house with a temperature of -14 F. The wind chill was around -40 F (-40 C, they are the same temperature). I have never seen it that cold before.

This picture is out my font window January 6, 2014. You can see the white in the air. That is the blowing snow. The wind was blowing the snow around a lot.
2014-01-06 14.50.01

You can see in this station plot that the actual air temperature ranged in the -14 to -15 F (which is -26 C).
stations

The cold weather lead to ice on the rivers in the area. Then, when temperatures warmed over the weekend, the ice went out and ice jams have formed on local rivers. ice

Judah Cohen from NOAA has shown that snow cover in Eurasia can have a big impact on winter weather in the Eastern US and Europe. This article discusses that snow cover makes a huge difference in surface temperature and that leads to cold high pressure in Siberia. Students can study the influence of snow on surface temperature through the GLOBE surface temperature data and the campaign we just had. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ost/climate/STIP/FY11CTBSeminars/jcohen_062211.pdf

– See more at: http://satellitesk12.org

3rd week of GLOBE Surface Temperature field campaign

Week 3: Surface Temperature field campaign

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Roswell-Kent Middle School, Ohio – Hi Steve and GLOBE class
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Bloomfield Junior/Senior High, Ohio
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen
Westchester Area Schools, New York – Hi Trenton
Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania – Hi Mr. Pop
Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago – Hi Ali
John Marshall High School, West Virginia – Hi Kim
Gimnazjum No 7 Jana III Sobieskiego in Rzeszów, Poland
Taaksi Basic School, Estonia
Crestwood High School, Michigan
Hills Home School, Washington, DC
Severn School, Maryland
The 2nd Secondary Girls School at Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Kilingi-Nomme Gymnasium, Estonia
Sekundarschule Uzwil, Switzerland – Hi Markus

If you haven’t been able to enter data so far, please so as soon as possible. I take a look at the data to see if there is any problem with it. If you are still having trouble getting the data in, please contact the help desk, help@globe.gov or me.

Problem with Cason 380 infrared thermometers
Megan Rodgers found a problems with the Cason 380 infrared thermometers. When it was about -8 Celsius outside and she left the instruments outside, the instruments read “too cold to read”. This is the first instruments I have had this happen.

I was lucky this year and my university classes ended a week earlier than usual. I got my grades done December 17th and then I visited Mr. Sinclair’s class at Ida Middle School on December 18th.

This image shows the school on the left from Google Earth from high resolution satellite imagery and on the right is the school with a Landsat image overlaid on top of the Google Earth image. The orange and red colors depict warmer temperatures and the blue tones depict cooler temperatures. You can see that the school and its surrounding parking lots are warmer than the temperature of the grassy areas and fields around the school.
ida2

Second week of Surface Temperature field campaign
The GLOBE Surface Temperature Temperature field campaign has continued to grow this past week. And, to add to the fun, snow has been falling in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere. GLOBE scientist, George Mitri, from Lebanon, said that there was snow for three days there. That was fairly unusual. I’ll get into why this has happened.

Many of you have had snow on the ground and that has affected the surface temperature. We had about 30 mm (a little over an inch) of snow in Toledo, Ohio this past week. The temperature of the grass with the snow on it was -4.4 C while the concrete without snow was -0.4 C.

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Bloomfield Junior/Senior High, Ohio
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen
Chartiers-Houston Jr./Sr. High School, Pennsylvania – Hi Mr. Pop
Brazil High School, Trinidad and Tobago – Hi Ali
John Marshall High School, West Virginia – Hi Kim
Gimnazjum No 7 Jana III Sobieskiego in Rzeszów, Poland
Taaksi Basic School, Estonia
Crestwood High School, Michigan

Here are MODIS images provided through NASA’s WorldView distribution website. There are lines that run from southwest to northeast in the image. Those are where the images are stitched together because the satellite images a swath of about 2300 km wide. Can you see where the snow is in the images? Today a snow storm is bringing snow to the Toledo area. Please see the image below.

MODIS image of the United States showing snow and clouds
modis

MODIS image of Europe showing clouds and snow
europe

Picture of my car covered by snow
carsnow

In this image, the path of the jet stream is shown on the snow cover map. You can see that there is a big dip in the jet stream so that cold air goes all the way down to New Mexico and Texas and then the jet stream caused the snow storm to track to the northeast. The same type of trough in the jet stream brought a snowstorm to the Middle East.
Snow cover with the jet stream in red.
storm

First week of Surface Temperature field campaign
It was a great first week of observation taking. I managed to take observations three times. The temperature dramatically went down between Monday and Friday.

I noticed that some of the observations have errors. One of the biggest issues is students not using the correct universal time. Remember that universal time is the time at 0 degrees longitude. It is also on a 24 hour clock.

Keep up the good work taking observations. If you post them to the GLOBE website, I can take a look at them. Please try to do it every day.

Snow cover in the United States has changed rapidly. The pictures below show the snow cover and depth on December 3, 2013 and then again on December 6, 2013. The weather has been quite active in the Northern Hemisphere, both the United States and in Europe. There was a little more snow in Eastern Europe as well.
NHsnow2
snow
GLOBEobs

Here are the schools that have entered data so far.
David Wooster Middle School – Connecticut
Bellefontaine High School, Ohio – Hi Dennis
Birchwood School, Ohio – Hi Linda
Main Street Intermediate School, Ohio – Hi Marcy
Archbold Middle School, Ohio
The University of Toledo, Ohio – These are my students.
Mohican School of the Outdoors, Ohio – Hi James and Susan
Eastwood Elementary School, West Virginia
Huntington High School, West Virginia – Hi Rick
Lexington Junior high school, Ohio – Hi Linda
Lakewood Catholic Academy, Ohio – Hi Eileen
Otsego High School, Ohio – Hi Debbie
Bowling Green State University, Ohio – Hi Jodi
Stryker High School, Ohio – Hi Donneen

Some of the data is not showing up yet. Only the surface temperature observations near noon are showing up. The other ones just disappeared. There must have been a server problem.

First snow in Michigan

November 12, 2013 by  
Filed under Dr. C's Blog, NASA

A fairly strong cold front is coming down from Michigan this Monday, November 11, 2013. Below is a great map that is available through the Weather Underground, http://wunderground.com As you can see in the image, colder air is coming in (cold air advection) from Michigan. It is snowing in placing as close as Jackson, Michigan. The blue is snow in the radar and green is rain.
firstsnow

It snowed. It was a lot of fun driving around last night in the snow. This high pressure system is bringing the cold air all the way down to Florida. There are forst warnings in Florida. That is usually the type of thing that may happen in January. The high pressure is 1048 mb which, if you remember contouring the maps, is very high. There is also a fair amount of lake effect snow that is kicking off this morning due to the cold air passing over the warm lakes. Take a look at the map east of Cleveland, in the UP of Michigan, at the south end of Lake Michigan, in the northern part of the lower penninsula of Michigan and into New York.

sfc_map
Source:AMS

Here are some pictures I took Tuesday morning, November 12, 2013 (11-12-13).
image1
image2

This is the frost pattern that was on my windshield this morning. It was really unique.
image3

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